Who Has Ratified the Paris Agreement
April 19, 2022 | Katy Yanossy
The objective of the agreement is to reduce global warming as described in Article 2 and to improve the implementation of the UNFCCC by: Adaptation issues have been further highlighted in the development of the Paris Agreement. Collective long-term adaptation objectives are included in the agreement and countries are held accountable for their adaptation measures, making adaptation a parallel component of the agreement with mitigation.  Adaptation objectives focus on improving adaptive capacity, increasing resilience and limiting vulnerability.  However, Turkey chose to ratify the agreement only as a developing country, although it fell under Annex I of the Convention group applicable to industrialized countries that were members of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) in 1992. It could be argued that the ratification decision and its timetable are intended only to receive financial assistance, especially since the aid is granted on the basis of the status of the ratifying country. Therefore, classifying it as a developing country would allow Turkey to take less responsibility when it comes to strengthening its emissions reduction targets for 2030 and mid-century. It would also give Turkey more time and a slower path to reducing emissions. This, in turn, could also suggest that Turkey`s net-zero target for 2053 is unrealistic. The agreement contains commitments from all countries to reduce their emissions and work together to adapt to the effects of climate change and calls on countries to strengthen their commitments over time. The agreement provides an opportunity for developed countries to assist developing countries in their mitigation and adaptation efforts, while providing a framework for transparent monitoring and reporting on countries` climate goals. The Paris Agreement is the world`s first comprehensive climate agreement.
 Both the EU and its Member States are solely responsible for ratifying the Paris Agreement. A strong preference has been expressed for the EU and its 28 Member States to deposit their instruments of ratification at the same time to ensure that neither the EU nor its Member States commit to commitments that strictly belong to each other, and there are concerns that there will be disagreement on each Member State`s share of the EU-wide reduction target – as well as the UK`s vote. in favor of leaving the EU could undermine the Paris Delay the Pact.  However, the European Parliament approved the ratification of the Paris Agreement on 4 October 2016 and the EU deposited its instruments of ratification on 5 October 2016 with several EU Member States.  Following a campaign promise, Trump – a climate denier who claimed that climate change was a “hoax” committed by China – announced in June 2017 his intention to withdraw the United States from the Paris Agreement. But despite the president`s statement from the rose garden that “we`re going out,” it`s not that easy. The withdrawal process requires the agreement to be in force for three years before a country can formally announce its intention to leave. Then he will have to wait a year before leaving the pact.
This means that the United States could officially leave on November 4, 2020 at the earliest, one day after the presidential election. Even a formal withdrawal would not necessarily be permanent, experts say; A future president could return to the board in just one month. At the 2011 United Nations Climate Change Conference, the Durban Platform (and the ad hoc working group on the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action) was established with the aim of negotiating a legal instrument for climate action from 2020 onwards. The resulting agreement is expected to be adopted in 2015.  The Paris Agreement was opened for signature on 22 April 2016 (Earth Day) at a ceremony in New York.  After several European Union states ratified the agreement in October 2016, enough countries that had ratified the agreement were producing enough greenhouse gases worldwide for the agreement to enter into force.  The agreement entered into force on November 4, 2016.  Although the agreement was welcomed by many, including French President François Hollande and UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon, criticism also surfaced. For example, James Hansen, a former NASA scientist and climate change expert, expressed anger that most of the deal is made up of “promises” or goals, not firm commitments.  He called the Paris talks a fraud with “nothing to do, only to promise” and believes that only a general tax on CO2 emissions, which is not part of the Paris Agreement, would reduce CO2 emissions fast enough to avoid the worst effects of global warming.  INDCs become NDCs – Nationally Determined Contributions – once a country formally accedes to the Agreement.
There are no specific requirements on how countries should reduce their emissions or to what extent, but there have been political expectations regarding the nature and severity of the targets set by different countries. As a result, national plans vary considerably in scope and ambition, largely reflecting each country`s capacities, level of development and contribution to emissions over time. China, for example, has pledged to reduce its carbon emissions by 2030 at the latest and to reduce carbon emissions per unit of gross domestic product (GDP) by 60 to 65 percent by 2030 compared to 2005 levels. India has set a target of reducing emissions intensity by 33-35% from 2005 levels and producing 40% of its electricity from non-fossil fuels by 2030. In addition, countries aim to reach a “global peak in greenhouse gas emissions” as soon as possible. The deal has been described as an incentive and engine for the sale of fossil fuels.   Although the United States and Turkey are not party to the agreement, since the countries have not declared their intention to withdraw from the 1992 UNFCCC, they will continue to be required, as Annex 1 countries, under the UNFCCC, to produce national communications and an annual greenhouse gas inventory.  A “national communication” is a type of report submitted by countries that have ratified the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).  Developed countries are required to submit national communications every four years and developing countries should do so.    Some least developed countries have not submitted national communications in the past 5 to 15 years, mainly due to capacity constraints. The Paris Agreement officially entered into force on 4 November 2016.
Other countries continued to become parties to the Convention as they had completed their national approval procedures. To date, 195 Contracting Parties have signed the Convention and ratified 189. More information on the Paris Agreement and the status of ratification is available here. The Kyoto Protocol, a landmark environmental treaty adopted at COP3 in Japan in 1997, is the first time that countries have agreed on country-specific emission reduction targets that are legally mandated. The protocol, which only entered into force in 2005, set binding emission reduction targets only for developed countries, based on the assumption that they were responsible for most of the Earth`s high greenhouse gas emissions. The United States first signed the agreement, but never ratified it; President George W. Bush argued that the deal would hurt the U.S. economy because it would not include developing countries such as China and India. Without the participation of these three countries, the effectiveness of the treaty proved limited, as its objectives covered only a small fraction of total global emissions. The Paris Agreement is an agreement within the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) that addresses mitigation, adaptation to greenhouse gas emissions and financing from 2020 onwards.
The agreement aims to address the threat of global climate change by keeping a global temperature increase this century well below 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels and making efforts to further limit the temperature increase to 1.5 degrees Celsius.  Under the Paris Agreement, each country must regularly identify, plan and report on its contribution to the fight against global warming.  There is no mechanism requiring a country to set a specific emission target on a specific date, but each target should go beyond the targets set previously. The United States officially withdrew from the agreement the day after the 2020 presidential election, although President-elect Joe Biden said America would join the agreement after his inauguration.  The Paris Agreement is a historic environmental agreement adopted by almost all countries in 2015 to combat climate change and its negative impacts. The agreement aims to significantly reduce global greenhouse gas emissions in order to limit the increase in global temperature this century to 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels, while looking for ways to limit the increase to 1.5 degrees. The agreement contains commitments from all major emitting countries to reduce their pollution from climate change and to strengthen these commitments over time. The Compact provides an opportunity for developed countries to support developing countries in their efforts to mitigate and adapt to climate change, and provides a framework for transparent monitoring, reporting and strengthening of individual and collective climate objectives of countries.
The authors of the deal have built a withdrawal schedule that President Trump must follow – and prevent it from irreparably harming our climate. .